Art. 7.3 Judicial Power Organic Act 1985 (Ley Orgánica del Poder Judicial). Courts will protect legitimate rights and interests, both individual and collective; for the defence of the latter, standing will be recognized to corporations, associations and groups that turn out to be affected or that are legally entitled to promote and defend those collective rights or interests click here (in Spanish)
Art. 31.2 Regulation of Public Administrations and General Administrative Procedures Act 1992 (Ley de Régimen Jurídico de las Administraciones Públicas y del Procedimiento Administrativo Común): Associations and organizations representing economic and social interests shall hold collective legitimate interests as conferred by law.
2.1. Consumer Law
Art. 51 Spanish Constitution 1978 (Constitución Española): The Public authorities shall guarantee the defence of consumers, protecting their safety, health, and legitimate economic interests through effective procedures click here (in English).
Arts 11 and 11 bis Civil Procedure Act 2000 (Ley de Enjuiciamiento civil). These provisions contain the procedural standing for the defence of rights and interests of consumers and users. See also, Arts. 6.1.7º(capacity to be a party), 7.7 (appearance in court and representation), 13.1 (participation of non-claimants and defendants originally), 15 (publicity and participation in proceedings for the protection of collective and diffuse rights and interests of consumers and users), 78.4 (inadmissibility of accumulation of proceedings), 221 (judgments awarded in proceedings initiated by associations of consumers and users), 222.3 (res judicata), 256.1.6ª (types of preliminary proceedings and how to apply for them), 519 (execution by consumers or users of judgments which do not identify the individuals that are to be beneficiary of the judgment) LEC Text (in Spanish) Text (in English)
Art. 128 Codified text of the General Law for the Defence of Consumers and Users and other complementary laws, Act 1/ 2007, (Real Decreto Legislativo 1/2007, de 16 de Noviembre, por el que se aprueba el texto refundido de la Ley General para la Defensa de los Consumidores y Usuarios y otras leyes complementarias): This provision regulates the consumer's right to compensation for damages caused by the consumption or use of products Click here (in Spanish).
Art. 23.1 Codified text of the General Law for the Defence of Consumers and Users and other complementary laws, Act 1/ 2007, (Real Decreto Legislativo 1/2007, de 16 de noviembre, por el que se aprueba el texto refundido de la Ley General para la Defensa de los Consumidores y Usuarios y otras leyes complementarias) in connection with Art. 11.1 LEC, states that consumer associations and organised groups can bring actions for the defence of consumers and users' rights and interests (not only consumers individually) Click here (in Spanish)
Art. 53 ss Codified text of the General Law for the Defence of Consumers and Users and other complementary laws, Act 1/ 2007, (Real Decreto Legislativo 1/2007, de 16 de noviembre, por el que se aprueba el texto refundido de la Ley General para la Defensa de los Consumidores y Usuarios y otras leyes complementarias), on injunctions. Click here (in Spanish)
Art. 12.2 Act on General Contractual Conditions or Standard Form Contracts 1998, (Ley 7/1998, de 13 de abril, sobre condiciones generales de la contratación, LCGC) allows consumers to accumulate injunctions, the action for the devolution of the amounts charged because of the standard terms, as well as the action for damages. Click here (in Spanish)
2.2. Competition Law
Art. 32 and 33 Unfair Competition Act 1991 (Ley de Competencia Desleal) Selected unfair competition actions may be taken by associations, professional corporations or representatives of economic interests when the interests of their members are affected Click here (in Spanish).
2.3. Product Liability
See Consumer Law section above. As mentioned before, in Spain it is difficult to draw a clear line between product liability and consumer law cases as consumers or consumers' associations file many product liability cases.
3. Other areas
3.1. Equality Law
Art. 19 Act on equal opportunities. This provision deals with equal opportunities, non- discrimination and universal accessibility for disabled people 2003 (Ley de igualdad de oportunidades, no discriminación y accesibilidad universal de las personas con discapacidad) Legal entities, under certain criterion, are also entitled to defend collective interests and rights in order to ensure the effectiveness of the right to equal opportunities Click here (in Spanish).
3.2. Environmental Law
Art 42 Environmental Liability Act 2007 (Ley 26/2007, de responsabilidad medioambiental): contains mainly administrative provisions, but according to Arts 41 and 42, collective, physical and legal persons (under certain circumstances) can initiate proceedings (as interested parties) in environmental damage cases Click here (in Spanish).
3.3. Labour Law
Arts. and 153-162 Act on Social Jurisdiction Proceedings 2011 (Ley reguladora de la jurisdicción social) Trade Unions, under certain circumstances, have standing to promote the defence of workers' collective interests. Under Arts. 153- 162 the legislature designs the collective conflicts proceedings Click here (in Spanish).
BIICL has recently worked with the German public body, the Gesellschaft fur internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) on a collective redress project....